By Syed Khudabakhash Shiraz Daniyal
It is Narrated by Prophet Mohammed (PBUH):-
"The earth will be filled with injustice and corruption. At that time, a man from among my progeny will rise and will rule for seven or nine years and will fill the earth with justice and equity."
(Musnad - Ahmad ibn Hanbal RH)
Hazrat Ali (RZ) narrates that Prophet of Allah (PBUH) said: “Even if only a day remains for Qiyamah to come, yet Allah will surely send a man from my family who will fill the earth with such justice and fairness, just as it initially was filled with oppression.”
(Sunan Abu Dawood)
Students of history are aware that during the ninth century Hijri, Chaotic conditions were prevailing in the political, social and religious lives of the Muslims. There was a vast difference between the preaching and the practicing of the Ulema. The adoption of new customs, innovations, religious heresy and wrong habits were common among Muslims. Essential elements of Islam were neglected. The state of affairs prevailing prior to the appearance of The Promised Mehdi AHS was best described by the renown historian / author Moulana Abul Kalam Azad, in his famous book "TAZKIRA":-
“The ninth century Hijri, prior to the reign of Akbar, was a period of great tumult, confusion and unrest. The rise and fall of Kingdoms was an everyday feature. There was no central Government strong enough to vouchsafe the promulgation and protection of the ordinances of the Shariat. The worldly minded Ulema were far greater in number than the God-fearing Ulema. Materialism, fraud and deceit were rampant. To crown them all, the BIDAT and the unlawful activities of the ignorant Sufis had made confusion worse, confounded and misled the people. Infringement and violation were registering a rapid rise in everyday life. Kings and nobles were steeped in debauchery and immorality”.
Other famous historians like; Basheer Ahmed Mohandis, Khalleq Ahmed Nizami, Syed Hashmi Fareedabadi and Abdul Haq Mohadith Dehelvi have depicted a very gloomy picture of Islam and its followers, during the reign of the Sultans of Delhi. They were unanimous in their findings, that there was little left of the original form. To say in brief (as per these historians):-
• The Mullahs of the day were under the influence of the kings, used to give unfounded interpretations to the Quranic verses and were very liberal in giving Verdicts (Fatwah) in favour of the kings without caring for the real position of the Islamic law.
• The sufis were not interested in the Islamic law (sharia) either.
• It was considered as ignorance to talk in terms of Kufr (Blasphemy) and Iman (Faith).
• No distinction was made between the creatures and the Creator.
• The kings were more interested in their own kingdom rather than in the Kingdom of Allah.
• Allah and his Laws were used as a shield for their unauthenticated deeds and rule.
Since, the foundation of Islam was laid by the sufis, more stress was given to the mystic path (Tareeqa) and there was a series of Sufis, Aulias and mystic-men in all parts of India. These sufis had their given Silsilas (Orders] of spiritual teachings inherited by them. But, according to local (political) circumstances they (being an ordinary human beings, were capable of erring) had introduced many new things and accepted several innovations which were un-Islamic in strict terms. The majority of the Muslim population was converted from Hindus and had retained many practices of the earlier faith, especially, the caste system and the Idol worship in a different/modified form (BIDAT).
In other countries, especially in the Arabian Peninsula the Sharia (Islamic law) was given more importance and the mystic path (Tareeqa) was completely ignored. In fact there was a confrontation between these two wings.
J.Spencer Trimingham in his book "The Sufi Orders in Islam" has given an account of the situation :-
"But these are theoretical ways none of which developed into Silsila - Tareeqa. Their teaching was modified by their pupils in accordance with their own mystical experiences... Thus there was a great contrast in both these wings and there was a greater need for introducing a balance between them".
The population of Muslims in India was relatively larger than the population in other countries, and was growing at a healthy rate, and as said above, the Religion here was well mixed with several innovations. Thus the need to introduce this blend of balance in India was more required than elsewhere. [This is also one of the main reason for the advent of the Promised Mehdi AHS in India.]
In view of this there was a greater need of a reformer in India than elsewhere. This need was founded on two aspects.
(1) The original form of Religion was to be restored to Islam and its Sharia.
(2) The spiritual and the Gnostic (Ma'rifa) aspects of Islam were to be taught in the real Islamic way.
Before we try to understand the first aspect i.e. restoration of Sharia, we have to take two things into consideration; First: Islam in India had no opportunity to have the living examples of the holy lives of the companions (Sahaaba-e-Ikram RZ) of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH). Secondly: the rulers of India, though Muslims, were not having the experience of a real Islamic state. The concept of the Khilafath had long died. In Islam, the real duty of the ruler was that of a servant of Allah, who was assigned the job of taking care of the land of Allah and its inhabitants. He was not only answerable to Allah, but also to the weakest citizen of the land. This concept was changed and the kings were termed as - Dilullah (Shadow of Allah) - (Naa'oozobillah-min-zaalik-bey-eteqaad) and were treated as privileged beings, free to do any thing they liked; and there was none to question them. Thus, there was a real need to restore the teachings of Islam in the original form, as it was in the times of the Prophet of Allah (PBUH).
The second aspect is purely Gnostic (Ma'rifa) and spiritual. To understand this aspect we will refer to few traditions (Hadiths).
1. Hazrath Abu Hurairah RZ (the eminent companion of the Prophet PBUH) narrated:
I have memorized two kinds of knowledge from Allah's Apostle (PBUH). I have propagated one of them to you and if I propagated the second, then my pharynx (throat) would be cut (i.e. killed).
[Sahih Al Bukhari : Volume 1 - Book 3 - Number 121]
2. Hazrath Abdullah Ibn-e-Abbas RZ had also referred to such type of knowledge in a tradition by saying that he was sure that he "would be stoned to death" if he were to reveal the meaning of a Quranic verse which he knew. [Complete details regarding this can be found on page 105 of Imam Ghazali's (RH) Ahya al-Uloom al-Deen, Vol. I]
3. Hazrath Huzaifatul Yaman (who was also known as the sahib-e-sirre-rasuul-Allah) has said that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had himself taught this (particular) knowledge especially to him. [Ahya al-Uloom al-Deen and Al-Kaukab al-Duriya]
From the above traditions it is evident that the Prophet of Allah (PBUH) had revealed certain aspects of Islam to those of his companions who were capable of understanding such teachings.
The Sufi Silsilas (Orders) in India trace their origin to the fourth Caliph Hazrath AliRazi-allahu-anhu, or to the first Caliph Hazrath Abu BakarRazi-allahu-anhu. Since the teachings of the Ma'nfa (gnosis) were not made common, they had many doubts and had to depend upon the interpretations given by the sufis and saints who were not free from erring (Ghair-Masoom).
The teachings were mostly based on the individual experiences and utterances of the sufis of the Silsila. The Islamic concept of the Gnosis was vanishing due to the local influence of the Hindu saints of Bhakti Movement. These saints were equally popular among Hindus and Muslims. Thus the Muslim sufis were also forced to follow them to retain their popularity.
Under the above Islamic / Historical background, and by the Wish and Will of Almighty Allah, Khalifatullah, Hazrath Meeran Syed Mohammed Jaunpuri, The Promised Mehdi AHS was born in 847 Hijri at Jaunpur in eastern India.
Al Quran Wal Mehdi Imamuna, Aamanna Woh Saddaqna
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