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Monday, June 6, 2011


After Death
There are few deviant groups who wrongly but firmly believe that, visiting the graves is strictly
undesirable and that it is an innovation and some even go to the extent to say it is a Shirk (especially
the extremists and spiritually bankrupt Wahabis). And subsequently, all rituals related to the death
of a person are also not allowed in the Religion, brought by our beloved Prophet Syedna
Mohammed Mustafa SAWS. Hence, the Islamic rituals followed by Mahdavis, such as: visiting the
graves (Ziyarat), feasting people in the name of Allah on behalf of the departed soul after the death
of a person etc are against the Religion of Allah.
The growing influence of Wahabism can be seen and felt in some of our youth and hence it is our
duty to try to rescue our brothers and sisters from the clutches of followers of Abdul Wahab and the
like minded people.
They are prey to their lack of knowledge and the following of false guides (leaders), who, for their
own benefit, lead others far away from Truth. Insha-Allah we will go through some of the Authentic
(Mutawattir) Ahadith of our beloved Prophet SAWS, which will show (and guide) us the
permissible, desirable and of course forbidden and important acts related to the death of a person.
Whether the soul of the dead person is connected with the body (grave) or not?
Hazrat Abu Saaed RZ reports, once Rasulullah SAWS came out and saw some people bursting with
laughter so that their teeth became visible. Having seen their state, he remarked:
“You must constantly remember death abundantly which curtails the taste of everything. Had you
been doing so I would not have seen you in this state. Not a day passes by that the grave says: ‘I am
the house of strangeness; I am the house of loneliness; and I am the house of insects.’” Thereafter
he added: “When a Believer is buried, the grave addresses him, ‘Welcome home! In fact you were
dear to me. Now when you have been consigned to me, you will see what good treatment you will
receive from me.’ Thereafter the grave is widened and a gate of Heaven is flung open for you.
When a transgressor or an unbeliever is buried, the grave admonishes him, ‘You are most
unwelcome! You have come to a very bad abode, you were the most accursed. Now that you have
been buried, you will see how I treat you.’ Thereafter, the grave squeezes him forcibly so that the
ribs are broken.” Rasulullah SAWS demonstrated this by inserting his fingers into each other.
Hazrat Saeed bin Museeb RZ reports that once Hazrat Ayesha RZ submitted to Rasulullah SAWS:
“O Rasulullah SAWS! From the day you have mentioned about the (horrible) voice of ‘Munkir’ and
‘Nakir’ and the pressing of the grave, you have become quite restless.”
Rasulullah SAWS said:
“O Ayesha! The voice of ‘Munkir’ and Nakir’ will be very sweet to the ears of the believers, and
pressing of the Believers by the grave is like the affectionate mother massaging the head of her
child with the purpose of comforting and relieving pain. But O’ Ayesha! Those having doubt in
Allah are doomed and they will be squeezed in the grave like eggs being smashed under the stone.”
The aforementioned Ahadith proves that, there will be torment in the grave (for the infidels &
sinners), as well as comfort (for Believers). There are many more Ahadith that proves concept of
the ‘Torment in the Grave’. Hence, it becomes compulsory that ‘The Soul must have some
connectivity with the Body’. To make it further clear :
Most of the scholars came to the conclusions that, ‘Soul of the person is connected to his Body even
after his death’.
The following statement is mentioned in Al-Ikhtiyaaraat Al-Fiqhiyyah, Page 94 :- According to the
scholarly view, the torment of the grave befalls both the soul and the body. Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn
Taymiyah RA said : “The view of the Salaf (Ancestors) of this Ummah and its Imams is that the
torment or blessing (of the grave) happens to the soul of the deceased and his body. After it departs
the body, the soul continues to be blessed or punished, and it is also connected to the body from
time to time, so that the blessing or torment reflects on the body as well as the soul.”
Further, there is also a Fatwa issued by Saudi Scholar Muhammad Saleh Al-Munajjid, saying that
the Torments of Grave affects body and soul.
Is it permissible to visit Graves (or Graveyards)?
There are some ignorant people who say that Prophet Mohammed SAWS has restricted his Ummah
from visiting the graveyards. This thinking is absolutely wrong. In fact, visiting of graveyards is the
Sunnah of Prophet Mohammed SAWS. He gave the same instructions to his ummah as well.
This disobedient slave of Allah is blessed with the permission of entering The Haramain Shareefain
(Two Holy Masjids in Makkah & Madinah) on more than one occasion. Hence, I witnessed the
words written on a big hoarding upon entering Jannat-ul-Baqi (Adjacent to Masjid-un-Nabawi -
Madinah. Most of Prophet SAWS’s wifes PBUT and many companions PBUT are rested here to
peace). For our reference, I will quote two Ahadith written there along with the opening note :-
“Dear Visitor,
This is the Prophet SAWS way of visiting the graveyard:
1) Graves are to be visited for introspection and learning a lesson. Prophet SAWS said ‘Visit the
grave for they remind you of death’.
2) Upon entering the graveyard Prophet SAWS used to greet the people of the grave saying, ‘Peace
be on you O people of Abode of the believers: We are surely going to join you Insha-Allah.
May Allah shows mercy to the former and to the latter. We ask well being for us and for you. O
Allah! Do not deprive us of the recompense (that u may grant us for our bereavement), and do
not subject us to temptation after their departure.’”
Like Jannat-ul-Baqi, there are few Ahadith written on a big hoarding outside the graveyard, where
the martyrs of “The Battle of Uhud” are laid to rest (including Hazrath Hamza RZ, uncle of Prophet
Mohammed SAWS). The first Hadith which appear here is :-
“The visiting of graveyard is recommended to remind one of the hereafter. Prophet PBUH said:
‘Previously I had forbidden you from visiting graveyards. Now you can visit them, however, for they
serve to remind one of the hereafter.’”
The point of regularly visiting the graveyard is proved here. One has to regularly remind himself of
the hereafter and this is accomplished by regular visits to the graveyards.
Similar Ahadith (as mentioned above) can be found in 203rd Chapter of Book # 4 (Kitaab Al-Salaat)
of Sahih Al Muslim. In this chapter, Imam Muslim has included the Ahadith relating to “What is to
be said while visiting the graveyard and the supplication to be offered for the dead lying in the
graves”, which is actually the title for this chapter.
Hence, visiting of graveyard is proved as a permissible act, rather we can say an essential act of
Islam towards the dead.
Other practice(s) of a Mehdavi : i) Performing feet-kissing act [Qadambosi]of the Pious Souls
As it a proven fact that the Soul of the deceased person is connected with the grave constantly and
so no explanation is required for the performance of Qadambosi of the Pious Souls.
If anyone doubt the concept of Qadambosi in Mahdaviat (that it is not permissible in Islam and has
been innovated by Mehdavis), then kindly go through the following Ahadith :-
Al Bukhari’s Al-Adab Al Mufrad: Chapter 445. Kissing the Feet
Hadith No. 975 : Al-Wazi Ibn Amir said, “We came and were told, ‘That is the Messenger of Allah
SAWS.’ We took his hands and feet and kissed them and kissed them.”
Hadith No. 976 : Suhayb said, “Ali kissed the hand and feet of al-Abbas.” (al-Abbas was Ali’s
Further, similar Ahadith has been quoted by other compilers (of Ahadith) and emphasized on their
being Sahih (Authentic) :-
From Safwan ibn `Asal al-Muradi: “One of two Jews said to his companion: Take us to this Prophet
so we can ask him about Musa's ten signs... [the Prophet SAWS replied in full and then] they kissed
his hands and feet and said: we witness that you are a Prophet...”. Reference: Ibn Abi Shayba
(Book of Adab, Chapter entitled A Man Kissing Another Man's Hand When He greets Him),
Tirmidhi (Book of Adab) who declared it hasan sahih, al-Nasa'i, Ibn Maja (Book of Adab), and
al-Hakim who declared it sahih.
Burayda narrated that one of the Bedouin Arabs who came to the Prophet, Peace be upon him,
asked: "O Messenger of Allah, give me permission to kiss your head and your feet," and he received
it. Reference: Hakim's Mustadrak and in Ibn Muqri. Both al-Hakim and al-`Iraqi declared the
latter's chain authentic.
The above-mentioned and many other Ahadith, confirms the permissibility of Qadambosi in Islam.
However, one needs to understand and know the difference between the two [i.e. Salaam greetings
and Qadambosi]. We need to remember one thing - Qadambosi is not a replacement for Salaam
greetings. Salaam is a verbal invocation (dua) and can be conveyed [loudly] from distance to an
individual or group but Qadambosi is like Musafaha which requires physical contact. For salaam is
done upon entrance on a whole gathering at a specific place, be it Masjid, a house, religious
function, or a grave yard which is by the way Sunnah too. However, the act of Qadambosi involves
one-on-one contact out of respect and reverence, which is impossible to perform on a group of
people, living or dead, simultaneously. Qadambosi almost always follows Salaam but not viceversa.
Another difference between the two is that for Salaam greetings returning the greetings [with
Walekumus Salaam] is necessary [Wajib] upon the beneficiary but there is no such condition for
Qadambosi simply because it’s one-way [usually from younger to elders, children to parents,
students to teacher, Mureed to Murshid etc] greetings meaning if someone performs Qadambosi of
some person then the return for it is usually Dua’ by the elder to the performer. If Qadambosi is
permissible act for a living person then there is no harm in doing it for the dead person in grave.
ii) Putting Flowers on the Grave
Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 1, Book 4, Number 215
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
Once the Prophet, while passing through one of the grave-yards of Medina or Mecca heard the
voices of two persons who were being tortured in their graves. The Prophet said, “These two
persons are being tortured not for a major sin (to avoid).” The Prophet then added, “Yes! (they are
being tortured for a major sin). Indeed, one of them never saved himself from being soiled with his
urine while the other used to go about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends).” The
Prophet then asked for a green leaf of a date-palm tree, broke it into two pieces and put one on each
grave. On being asked why he had done so, he replied, "I hope that their torture might be lessened,
till these get dried."
Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 2, Book 23, Number 443 [also Hadith Number 460 with slight changes
in words]
Narrated Ibn Abbas:
The Prophet once passed by two graves, and those two persons (in the graves) were being tortured.
He said, “They are being tortured not for a great thing (to avoid). One of them never saved himself
from being soiled with his urine, while the other was going about with calumnies (to make enmity
between friends).” He then took a green leaf of a date-palm tree split it into two pieces and fixed
one on each grave. The people said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Why have you done so?” He replied, “I
hope that their punishment may be lessened till they (the leaf) become dry.” [Also narrated by Ibn
Abbas in Mishkat]
Whatever a Khalifatullah (Caliph of Allah) says or acts (perform some deed), it will be according to
the command of Almighty Allah. Syedna Mohammed Mustafa SAWS was a Khalifatullah and has
been chosen for the seal-of-the-Prophets by Almighty Allah. His words and deeds can never go
against the Will of Allah.
He has taken the fresh part of a tree and put it on the grave and said, “I hope that their punishment
may be lessened till they (the leaf) become dry.”
If such is the effect of a fresh leaf on the graves of sinners, then what a comfort it would provide on
the graves of Pious Souls!!!!
[Flower and Leaf, both are the fresh parts of a tree/plant and hold the same characteristic as other.
Both will dry-up after separated from the tree. Hence, we have witnessed our elders using leaf of
trees, in case flowers are not available.]
iii) What is the purpose of Ziyarat?
We go with the purpose of meeting (ziarat) them. If the visitor has reached a high spiritual state he
can converse with the soul of the buzurg and get spiritual bliss. On the other hand if the visitor's
spiritual state is not high enough, he can only hope that he gets spiritual bliss (behra) to whatever
extent he can absorb it. Secondly, the grace of Allah is showered on the abodes of his favorite ones
(friends or valis). Our hope when we go there is that we get some effect of that spiritual shower. On
the other side, if we’re visiting the graves of our family members, relatives and friends who more or
less were ordinary mortals like the visitors themselves then the intention is to make a sincere
supplication (Dua’) to Allah on dead’s behalf for forgiveness, mercy and salvation. In either of the
cases i.e. visiting exalted holy soul or ordinary soul, the end result is to remind oneself of their own
imminent and inevitable abode. This is our humble understanding of the ziarat.
iv) Whether a dead person can hear and speak?
Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 2, Book 23, Number 452
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
The Prophet looked at the people of well (the well in which the bodies of the pagans killed in the
Battle of Badr were thrown) and said, “Have you found true what your Lord promised you?”
Somebody said to him, “You are addressing dead people.” He replied, “You do not hear better than
they but they cannot reply.”
Dead person can speak as well. In the below Hadith the reason has been explained, why human
being can not hear what the dead person says :-
Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 2, Book 23, Number 402
Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri:
The Prophet said, “When a funeral is ready and the men carry the deceased on their necks
(shoulders), if it was pious then it will say, ‘Present me quickly’, and if it was not pious, then it will
say, ‘Woe to it (me), where are they taking it (me)?’ And its voice is heard by everything except
mankind and if he heard it he would fall unconscious.” [Also Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 2, Book
23, Number 462 with slight changes in words]
Before we know, whether a dead can speak or not, let’s discuss few things regarding the hearing of
dead person:
There is a conflict between the scholars of Sunnat-ul-Jamaat regarding this issue. Those who reject
the concept will produce the Quranic Verse “So verily, thou cannot make the dead to hear…” This
is the 52nd Verse of Surah Ar-Rum (30). But this is incomplete Verse, and everyone who rejects this
concept will produce only this part of the Verse only to mislead others and in attempt to make their
philosophy authentic. The complete Verse is :-
“So verily, thou canst not make the dead to hear, nor canst thou make the deaf to hear the call, when
they show their backs and turn away.”
This Verse is clearly referring to those, who will deny the Truth of Prophet Mohammed SAWS and
The Book revealed on him. Hence, the “dead” here is referring to “those people” who will not
accept the Truth. To make it further clear, I will quote another translation of this Verse :-
“So verily, you (O Muhammed SAW) cannot make the dead to hear (i.e. the disbelievers, etc.) nor
can you make the deaf to hear the call, when they show their backs, turning away.” [Translator: Dr.
Muhammed Muhsin Khan]
If still any doubts remain, I will present the Verse 52 and 53 together, which will further clarify the
indications (objective) of Almighty Allah with these Holy Verses :-
“So verily, you (O Muhammed SAW) cannot make the dead to hear (i.e. the disbelievers, etc.) nor
can you make the deaf to hear the call, when they show their backs, turning away. [52] And you (O
Muhammed SAW) cannot guide the blind from their straying; you can make to hear only those who
believe in Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and have to
submitted to Allah in Islam (as Muslims).[53]”
Hence the stance of these people is wrong and they want to mislead the common people by hiding
the Truth.
Now we will move on to the speaking and meeting capabilities of a dead person :-
Hazrat Qays bin Qabisa RZ reports that RasoolAllah SAWS stated:
“Unbelievers are not permitted to talk with each other”
Someone enquired whether the dead could speak, he answered:
“Yes, and they also visit each other.” [Ibn Hibban]
Similar Hadith has been also reported by Umm-ul-Musaddiqeen Bibi Ayesha RZ :-
Hazrat Ayesha RZ reported that RasoolAllah SAWS said:
“One who is not a Believer is not allowed to talk to the dead.”
“Do the dead speak too?” Someone enquired.
“Yes, of course!” said RasoolAllah SAWS and added “They also visit each other.”
Hazrat Jabir RZ reports that RasoolAllah SAWS stated:
“When a Believer is placed in the grave, he feels as if the sun is setting. Thus when his soul is
returned he seats himself up and says (to the angels):‘Leave me to say Salaat (prayer) first’.” [Ibn
The status and condition of a Believer (Momin) is far better in the hereafter, comparing to his life in
this perishable world.
It is narrated by Abdullah Bin Amr that Prophet Mohammed SAWS said “The gift of a believer is
death”. [Mishkat - 1609]
Prophet Mohammed SAWS said :-
“Man loves his life, while death is better for him”. [Mishkat]
The following words are mentioned in an article of a Sunni Scholar :-
“From the teachings of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu-Alayhi-Wasallam) it becomes
clear that after the demise of a person we apparently take him/her to be lifeless, but that person
remains alive, although his/her life is different from our lives. The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu-Alayhi-
Wasallam) is reported to have said that the act of breaking a bone of the dead body causes the
deceased as much pain as is felt by a living person.” [Courtesy :]
Sunan Abu Dawood - Book 20, Number 3201
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu’minin:
The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) said: Breaking a dead man's bone is like breaking it
when he is alive.
v) Recitation of Surah Fatiha
Sunan Abu Dawood - Book 20, Number 3193
Narrated AbuHurayrah:
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: When you pray over the dead, make a sincere supplication
for him.
Narrated by Abu Hurairah: The Prophet SAWS said, “When you pray for a dead man (or person),
make your prayer sincere for him.” [Mishkat No. 1674 & Ibn Majah]
Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 2, Book 23, Number 419
Narrated Talha bin 'Abdullah bin 'Auf:
I offered the funeral prayer behind Ibn Abbas and he recited Al-Fatiha and said, “You should know
that it (i.e. recitation of Al-Fatiha) is the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad.”
Given below is the procedure followed by a Mehdavi (for reciting Fatiha on the Holy Soul) :-
“Al Fatiha Ba Rooh-e-Paak XYZ (Name of the deceased)
“Reciting Surah Al Fatiha (1 time)
“Reciting Surah Al Ikhlas (3 times)
“Reciting Durood-e-Shareef (1 time)”
Then we offer the reward (of the above recitation) to the Soul and ask for his/her salvation [O’
Allah the Merciful give the reward for these (recitations) to the soul of this dead person in the grave
and forgive the soul and the body and have Mercy on him/her (Ya Allah, iska sawaab XYZ ki rooh
ko baksh aur unki Maghferat Farma).
This is just a sincere effort by a Mehdavi to ask forgiveness and help the deceased person, which is
a highly regarded deed and best possible service by the loved ones to a dead person :-
Al Bukhari’s Al-Adab Al-Mufrad - Chapter: Dutifulness towards Parents after their death
Abu Hurayra RZ reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,
said, “When a person dies, all action is cut off for him with the exception of three things: sadaqa
which continues, knowledge which benefits, and a righteous child who makes supplication for
Sahih Al Muslim - Chapter 195, Book 004, Number 2104
Jubair b. Nufair says: I heard it from 'Auf b. Malik that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him)
said prayer on the dead body, and I remembered his prayer: “O Allah! forgive him, have mercy
upon him, give him peace and absolve him. Receive him with honour and make his grave spacious;
wash him with water, snow and hail. Cleanse him from faults as Thou wouldst cleanse a white
garment from impurity. Requite him with an abode more excellent than his abode, with a family
better than his family, and with a mate better than his mate. Admit him to the Garden, and protect
him from the torment of the grave and the torment of the Fire.” ('Auf bin Malik) said: I earnestly
desired that I were this dead body. [Also narrated in 2105 and 2106 by different chain of
Sunan Abu Dawood - Book 20, Number 3194
Ali ibn Shammakh said: I was present with Marwan who asked AbuHurayrah: Did you hear how
the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) used to pray over the dead? AbuHurayrah said: O Allah,
Thou art its Lord. Thou didst create it, Thou didst guide it to Islam, Thou hast taken its spirit, and
Thou knowest best its inner nature and outer aspect. We have come as intercessors, so forgive him.
Hazrat Ibn Abbas RZ reports that RasoolAllah SAWS stated:
“A dead body is as helpless in his grave as the drowning man. He keeps waiting for (duaas)
supplications from his father, mother, brother and friends. When he receives supplication from
anyone, he becomes so delighted as if he has something better than everything on this earth.
Definitely, Allah Ta’ala confers reward on the men in the grave equal to the mountains. Seeking
forgiveness by the living is the gift for the dead.” [Mishkat]
Hazrat Abu Hurairah RZ reports that RasoolAllah SAWS said:
“Allah Ta’ala will elevate the status of the Heavenly men in Jannat (Paradise). He will ask in
astonishment, “O’ Allah! How did I receive such a high status?” Allah Ta’ala will say, “It is
because of your children seeking forgiveness that you have received such a high status.” [Mishkat]
Similar Hadith has been also mentioned in Tabarani:
Some persons will have virtues equal to mountains. They will be astonished as to how did they get
so much virtue and would ask about it. Allah Ta’ala will say: “These are conferred on you because
of your children’s seeking forgiveness.” [Tabarani]
vi) The practice of relatives (or friends) bringing the food for the family members (of the
deceased) in the permissible three days of mourning
There is a common practice in Mehdavia community that, the relatives or friends of the deceased
[or relatives or friends of any family member of the deceased], use to bring the food for family
members of the deceased for first few days. This practice is also in accordance with the instructions
of Prophet Mohammed SAWS :-
Sunan Abu Dawood - Book 20, Number 3126
Narrated Abdullah ibn Ja'far:
The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) said: Prepare food for the family of Ja'far for there
came upon them an incident which has engaged them.
vi-a) The practice of Chowtha (the fourth day)
On the fourth day after the deceased has passed away the poor are fed and people use sondha (a
mixture of perfume and oil). This practice of Mahdavis is as per the instructions of the Prophet
SAWS. The prophet has allowed the grieving to be done for three days. The Mahdavis allow three
days of mourning to complete. On the fourth day, the Mahdavis mark the end of the grieving by
using Sondha. This is in contrast to the rest of the Muslims who commemorate on the third day
itself which means that three days of mourning are not completed.
There is a hadith by Hz Zainab RZ who used perfume on the fourth day to mark the end of the
grieving period.
vii) Sawiyat, Ghadi and feeding people with the intention to offer reward to the deceased
The Sawiyat in the Daira system was a practice of equitable distribution of gift (futuh) that come in
the name of Allah. Sawiyat related to dead is nothing but spending a calculated amount [more but
not less] by guardians of the dead in lieu of missed obligatory prayers, fasts, Hajj and Zakat by the
departed one amongst the Fuqara (Tarek-e-Duniya) and the needy people (Mustehaq) in the name of
Allah. Allah - The Most Merciful, has Himself given high regards and promised great rewards for
those who spend their earnings in Charity :-
“And spend of your substance in the cause of Allah, and make not your own hands contribute to
(your) destruction; but do good; for Allah loveth those who do good.” [Surah Al Baqarah 2 : 195]
“And whatever ye spend in charity or devotion, be sure Allah knows it all. But the wrong-doers
have no helpers. [270] If ye disclose (acts of) charity, even so it is well, but if ye conceal them, and
make them reach those (really) in need, that is best for you: It will remove from you some of your
(stains of) evil. And Allah is well acquainted with what ye do.” [Surah Al Baqarah 2 : 270-271]
“(Charity is) for those in need, who, in Allah's cause are restricted (from travel), and cannot move
about in the land, seeking (For trade or work): the ignorant man thinks, because of their modesty,
that they are free from want. Thou shalt know them by their (Unfailing) mark: They beg not
importunately from all the sundry. And whatever of good ye give, be assured Allah knoweth it
well.” [Surah Al Baqarah 2 : 273]
“Ye will not attain unto piety until ye spend of that which ye love. And whatsoever ye spend, Allah
is Aware thereof.” [Surah Al Imran 3 : 92]
We have often heard / read by our elders / in Mehdavia literature, regarding the distribution of
shares (Sawiyat) equally among the Fuqra’s (immigrant of Dairas). But, was this (distribution of
shares) practiced during the days of Nabuwat as well?
Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 8, Book 75, Number 348:
Narrated 'Abdullah:
The Prophet divided something (among the Muslims) and distributed the shares (of the booty). A
man said, “This division has not been made to please Allah.” When I informed the Prophet about it,
he became so furious that I noticed the signs of anger on his face and he then said, “May Allah
bestow His Mercy on Moses, for he was hurt with more than me, yet he remained patient.”
Brothers, it was not just the practice of Prophet Mohammed SAWS, but also Prophet Moses AS
followed this.
Anyhow, the ritual of Ghadi is also related to charity (Eesaal-e-Sawaab), in the name of Allah, with
the intention of salvation for the soul of the deceased person. In the Daira system, upon the death of
a person immediately or after some days, all the belongings of the dead person like clothes, prayer
mat, blanket and other essential goods were handed over by his relatives to the head [Murshid] of
the Daira who in turn distribute it among the needy people of the Daira. This practice even though
the Daira system is gone is still followed my most of the Mahdavis.Whatever spent in the name of
Allah, with the pure intention of conveying its reward to the pious soul, will be regarded as Eesaale-
Sawaab, which will benefit a lot to the dead, and loved by Allah as well.
We will go through some of the authentic Ahadith, relating to Sadqa (on behalf of dead person) to
help them relieved from their sins :-
Al Bukhari’s Al-Adab Al-Mufrad - Chapter: Dutifulness towards Parents after their death
Ibn’Abbas reported that a man said, “Messenger of Allah, my mother died without a will. Will it
help her if I give sadaqa on her behalf?” “Yes” he replied.
Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 2, Book 23, Number 470
Narrated Aisha:
A man said to the Prophet, “My mother died suddenly and I thought that if she had lived she would
have given alms. So, if I give alms now on her behalf, will she get the reward?” The Prophet replied
in the affirmative.
Sahih Al Muslim - Chapter 3, Book 013, Number 4001
Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported that a person said to Allah's Apostle (may peace
be upon him): My father died and left behind property without making any will regarding it. Would
he be relieved of the burden of his sins if I give sadaqa on his behalf? He (the Holy Prophet) said:
Yes. [Also see Hadith number 4002, 4003 and 4004]
We also witnessed that, in most of the cases, family members of the deceased use to give food for
the needy (mustehaq) person(s) continuously for 40 days (or more), in the name of Allah, with the
intention of relieving the soul from the torment of grave.
Likewise the feeding to the people, especially for Fuqara and Needy people, on the 4th day, 10th day,
20th day, 40th day etc. with the intention [Niyaat] of deceased person is also with the intention of
offering its reward to the pious soul, and helping the deceased person by doing this. As discussed
and proved earlier that, asking forgiveness and giving charity by the living person is a gift for the
We Mehdavis’ opt for every possible (permissible) step (act / deed) to relieve the deceased from his
/ her sins and from the dreadful torment of grave and the torment of fire.
Regarding the particular (fixed) dates for holding these feeding ceremonies in the name of Allah,
there is a Hadith quoted in Chirag-e-Deen-e-Nabawi with its reference :-
In the book “Kanzul Momenin” with reference to the book “Sharf-e-Nabouvat” it is written through
Bibi Aisha RZ and Hazrat Abu Huraira RZ that Anhazrat Sal'am said that on the day of burial the
deceased faces severity of the grave and interrogation. And on the fourth day again, the deceased
faced severity of the grave and interrogation, and then on the tenth day, twentieth day and on the
fortieth day too the severity of grave and interrogation and likewise it continues till one full year.
On fixed days or otherwise feeding the poor in the name of Allah with intended rewards for
deceased’s soul is done not only in Mahdavia community but also in Sunnat-wal-Jamaat too.
However, the question is when Wahabis and the like-minded feed the poor? They also have
objection on eventful days like Milad, Urs, Tasmiah Khani etc which are potential auspicious days
to invite the poor. It’s not just days they’re after but the blessed nights, Meraj and Bara’t too. So, if
you have it their way and if you follow their suit then you’ll not only deprive yourselves of great
rewards but also for your loved and helpless ones no longer among you.
Sacrificing the animal in the name of Allah [not in the name of the dead] and feed the poor and
needy thereof on behalf of the occupier of the grave is permissible in the light of hadith from Sahih
Muslim, only relevant text of the hadith is quoted for the brevity
…………. Had I died in this state had every reason to hope that I would have bee among the
dwellers of Paradise. Then we were responsible for certain things (in the light of which) I am unable
to know what is in store for me. When I die, let neither female mourner nor fire accompany me.
When you bury me, fill my grave well with earth, then stand around it for the time within which a
camel is slaughtered and its meat is distributed so that I may enjoy your intimacy and (in your
company) ascertain what answer I can give to the messengers (angels) of Allah. [
Book 001, Number 0220]
viii) Removing shoes before entering the Graveyard
Sunan Abu Dawood - Book 20, Number 3224
Narrated Bashir, the Client of the Apostle of Allah:
“Bashir's name in pre-Islamic days was Zahm ibn Ma'bad. When he migrated to the Apostle of
Allah (peace_be_upon_him). He asked: What is your name? He replied: Zahm. He said: No, you
are Bashir.
“He (Bashir) said: When I was walking with the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) he passed
by the graves of the polytheists. He said: They lived before (a period of) abundant good. He said
this three times. He then passed by the graves of Muslims. He said: They received abundant good.
“The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) suddenly saw a man walking in shoes between the
graves. He said: O man, wearing the shoes! Woe to thee! Take off thy shoes. So the man looked
(round), when he recognized the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him), he took them off and
threw them away.”
Alhamdulillah, even today the Mahdavis adhere to this commandment of the Prophet SAWS. When
we visit our graveyards, we take off our shoes and leave them at the entrace. This is in contrast to
the other Muslims who walk with their shoes in their graveyards.
ix) Walking or sitting on Grave is strictly undesirable
Sahih Al Muslim - Chapter 201, Book 004, Number 2119
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: It is better that one of
you should sit on live coats which would burn his clothing and come in contact with his skin than
that he should sit on a grave.
[Narrated by Suhail with the same chain of transmitters in number 2120]
Reported in the Musnad of Imam Ahmed
When the prophet (S.A.W.) saw Omar Ibn Hizam leaning against a grave, he said: “Do not harm the
occupant of the grave.”
x) What is Sajdah? Do Mehdavis perform Sajdah at the Graves of Pious Souls?
"Haven't you seen that unto Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is in the earth,
and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the hills, and the trees, and the beasts, and many of
mankind, while there are many unto whom the doom is justly due. He whom Allah scorns, there is
none to give him honor. Lo! Allah does what he wills" [Surah Al Hajj 22 : 18]
Sajdah (prostration) is specific for Allah alone. No Believer should prostrate in front of anyone
other than the Lord of all that exist in this world and else where. Even the Greatest of all Prophets,
Syedna Mohammed Mustafa SAWS has not permitted anyone to prostrate to / in front of him.
The act which is forbidden in Islam will never be part of Mehdaviat. Meeran Syedna Mohammed
Jaunpuri Mehdi Maud AS was the perfect follower (Tabe-e-Taam) of Prophet Mohammed SAWS;
hence, accordingly the followers of Mehdi Maud AS can never practice the forbidden act (deed).
We just bent down, in humility, and kiss the feet of the pious souls of the servants of Allah. At least,
in this case we do fulfill the actual meaning of Qadambosi (i.e. kissing the feet). And by seeing this
act, some fools think, “we are performing Sajda in front of the graves”!!!!
Alas! How these people perform their Sajdah (during prayer) and what are the requirements of
Sajdah according to them, only Allah knows better!
And he raised his parents high on the throne (of dignity), and they fell down in prostration, (all)
before him…(Surah Yousuf 12:100)
Intention is so vitally important and part & parcel of every single deed we perform in Islam and that
is no coincidence that Imam Bukhari RH placed the very first tradition in his collection on that
subject because what was to follow depends entirely on this first tradition (courtsey brother Suhael)
And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis:
he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith. [2:34]
If prostration alone is taken literally to be Shirk then Allah would not have commanded Angels
to prostrate before Adam AS and Yousuf AS would never ask his courtiers to bow to his parents
The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to
what he has intended….(Bukhari)
The accusers don’t even know the difference between prostation before Allah with intention and a
mere bow in respect for elderly. They daydream entering paradise but they’re ignorant about the
place and the door of the paradise itself.
A man once consulted the Prophet Muhammad about taking part in a military campaign. The
Prophet asked the man if his mother was still living. When told that she was alive, the Prophet said:
"(Then) stay with her, for Paradise is at her feet." (Al-Tirmidhi)
“Be at your mother’s feet and there is the Paradise.” (Ibn Majah, Sunan, Hadith no. 2771)
Mahdavis are taught not to yen for paradise but we wish to kiss our parents’ feet at every single
opportunity, whether dead or alive. There are numerous traditions reported in favor of respecting
one’s teacher (murshid), immediate relatives such as aunt, uncle, grand parents etc. They all deserve
utmost respect and Qadambosi is one way of showing it, if not the only way.
A Sajdah is not complete without his/her forehead, nose, hands (palms), knees and toes, all touching
the ground. And for men, only the 6 parts (of the body), mentioned above, should touch the ground.
And the procedure is that (while going into Sajdah), first knees will touch the ground, then hands
will touch the ground, then nose will touch the ground and then forehead. And while coming out of
the Sajdah, it will be vice-versa; first forehead will rise from the ground, then nose, then hands and
then knees. Without taking care about this sequence and obligations (without any valid reason), the
Sajdah is considered undesirable [Makruh]. (If the forearms of men touched the ground, then Sajdah
is undesirable. But for women, forearms should not be apart from the ground. Complete palms and
forehands should slide on the ground and should be close to the body.)
Friends, just correct me, if I am wrong. Just bending down and kissing the feet, is it the definition of
Prostration (Sajdah) according to the teachings of Shariat?
In various Ahadith, it has been clearly mentioned that, “No one should prostrate himself in front of
anyone, other than his Lord.” The commandments regarding Prostration (Sajdah) is very clear, and
even the order in which Prostration (Sajdah) has to be performed (to make it valid).
The act of Mehdavis, kneeling down with great esteem, honor and respect and kissing the feet, is in
accordance of following Ahadith :-
It is narrated that when Hazrath Bilal Razi-Allahu-Anhu, came back to Madinah after many years,
he went straight to the Honourable Qabr (Grave) of Nabi Muhammad Sallallahu-Alaihi-Was-
Sallam, and fell down and put his forehead on the Qabr (Grave), and kissed it, saying, "Oh my
beloved, Rasulullah Sallallahu-Alaihi-Was-Sallam." [Ibn Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq; al-Samhudi
in Wafa al-Wafa; al-Imam al-Mujtahid al-Subki in Shifa as-Siqam bi-ziyarat Khayr al-
Tabarani narrates that Abu Ayyub al-Ansari Razi-Allahu-Anhu, the Great Sahabi, once put his
head on the honourable Qabr (Grave) of Nabi Muhammad Sallallahu-Alaihi-Was-Sallam, and
kissed it. The Umayyad ruler, Marwan bin al-Hakam, a notorious man, asked Abu Ayyub why he
was worshipping the stone. Abu Ayyub replied that he was visiting Nabi Muhammad Sallallahu-
Alaihi-Was-Sallam, and not a stone. Someone then intervened and warned Marwan not to interfere
with Abu Ayyub Razi-Allahu-Anhu, as he was one of the Companions of Nabi Muhammad
We Mehdavis are lovers of Almighty Allah and His beloved Prophet Mohammed SAWS. The
lovers of Allah and His Prophet SAWS will not perform acts that earn the displeasure of Allah and
His Prophet SAS. Our intentions are pure and crystal clear - Visiting the Graves, offering flowers,
feet-kissing, supplication, giving charity, feeding people etc. in the name of Allah on behalf of the
dead - are either for the salvation of the loved ones or respect for the pious souls or expecting
reward from our Lord in the hereafter. There is no scope for SHIRK here. Where is the Shirk? All
these acts are not only permissible but highly rewarding too, both to living and the dead alike. We
do not carry any intentions of worshipping the graves. Being the true followers of the Holy Quran
and Prophet Mohammed SAWS, we the Mahdavis only act according to the Quran and the Sunnah.
All the posthumous acts by relatives or friends on dead’s behalf discussed in this paper are
voluntary, permissible and highly rewarding to both parties, above and below the surface of the
earth. It is also shown that all of them are established Sunnah. Not doing it does not bring any harm
but accusing the ones who’re following it with the terms like “Biddah” and “Shirk” when in fact it
is Sunnah is a matter of grave sin. May Allah swt guide them to the correct path and keep us firm on
the right path.
Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 1, Book 1, Hadith Number 1:
Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab:
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, “The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person
will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or
for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for.”

Thursday, June 2, 2011

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of both worlds, the only goal for those who keep constantly aware of Allah for their whole lives. Praise and blessing be upon the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and upon his family and companions, each and every one.

You discriminating reader, who can judge between right and wrong Know that the events recorded here took place in the reign of the Emperor Aurangzeb, when he came from Delhi to stay in the region of Ahmadnagar. The religious scholars of this region, along with the judges, the deliverer of the Friday sermons, and other religious leaders who have harbored enmity against the religion of the Mahdi (may peace be upon him) took counsel with the Emperor. They informed him that the community of the followers of the Mahdi (AHS) were verty numerous in this region. They told him that these Mahdawis claim that the Promised Mahdi (AHS) of the end of time has come and gone, and that their doctrine is different from our Sunni doctrine.

The emperor Aurangzeb ordered the Judge, Qadi Abu Sa'id, .to summon some of the leaders of the Mahdawi community and apprehend from them what their actual doctrinal beliefs might be. The Judge therefore summoned the descendents of Shah Sharif (RAH) who lived at the tomb complex [raudah] of their ancestor. He asked them, "Are you followers of the Mahdi?" And they answered that they were indeed. The Judge then asked, "Do you have in your religious community any scholars or learned leaders with whom I could have a discussion?" They answered him, We ourselves do not have the required knowledge and learning of our own tradition that we might dispute with one such as you, but you should consider another descendents of our leader, his name is Miyan Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), and he lives at Chichaund. The Judge then requested that they send for this learned man. After meeting Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) and informing him of the Judge's intentions they brought the Shaykh and some of his companions to Ahmadnagar. So from Chichaund came Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), Ilyas Miran (RAH), Shaykh A'zam (RAH) (the son of Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH)) and Abu al-Qasim (the writer of this narrative), along with others from their community who had renounced worldly ambitions. They arrived at the tomb-complex of Shah Sharif in Ahmadnagar, and gave notice to the Judge of their arrival.
The Judge summoned them into his presence, and they all sat down in the official court building. In accordance with the summons, Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) and his son, Shaykh A'zam (RAH), entered into the Judge's private chambers and greeted him by saying 'as-Salamu' alaykum.' The Judge answered, 'Wa'alaykum as-Salam.' He then asked them about their doctrinal beliefs. They pronounced the ritual words of witness [shahadah] that there is no divinity but Allah, and that Muhammad (PBUH) is the Prophet of Allah (PBUH). They then explained that their belief is based on the singularity and uniqueness of Allah, who sent the messenger (PBUH), Muhammad (praise and peace be upon him). Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) said, We cherish the memory of all four of the Prophet's (PBUH) closest companions [meaning the four rightly-guided Khulafa'] and acknowledge that all four schools of law are based on the divine truth and are worthy of being followed. We are of the people of the Prophet's (PBUH) example and community [Ahl-i Sunnat o Jama'at] and we say that the Promised Mahdi (AHS) has already come and gone.
Upon hearing this, the Judge challenged him, 'By what proof do you claim that the Mahdi of the end of time has come and gone?'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) replied, 'We make this claim by the proof that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is reported to have said, "It is true that Allah sends to this community [ummah] at the start of each century someone who will renew its religion". And reliable commentators on this report have further clarified that the religious renewer [mujaddid] of the tenth century will be none other than the Mahdi (AHS). This commentary is mentioned in many books, including Tambih al-Taharruz and lrnam al-Nawwawi's commentary on Sahih Muslim. Not only that, but the great and pious saint, Hazrat Gesu Daraz (may Allah's mercy be upon him), who is trustworthy and followed the shari'ah scrupulously, has said in the malfuzat text that records his words. "The Prophet (PBUH) has said that Allah will send one from within his community to be a Mahdi at the start of each century, and at the tenth and last century, that one will be none other than the [promised] Mahdi (AHS)". Likewise al-Tabari has written in his book of hi story that the Mahdi (AHS) will appear in the year 905 after the Hijra. "The Mahdi (AHS) that we affirm, Sayyid Muhammad (PBUH) Jaunpuri, made his appearance in this very year, and if anyone doubts this they can look up the historical facts. So it is clearly established without any doubt that this very man, Sayyid Muhammad (PBUH) Jaunpuri, is the [promised] Mahdi (AHS). We affirm his status as the Mahdi (AHS) with all of these proofs; so tell us, with what proofs do you challenge his status?'
The Judge said, In this matter, there is a saying of the Prophet (PBUH) that the Mahdi (AHS) "will fill the earth with fairness and justice, just as it has been filled with tyranny and injustice". It is clear from this saying that, with the appearance of the promised Mahdi (AHS), all the tyranny and injustice in the world will be eradicated and that the whole world will be filled with justice and honesty. Therefore, all the people will become Muslims and not a single infidel would be left on the face of the earth. Up until this very day, such an extraordinary event has not happened! So how can you claim that the promised Mahdi (AHS) has already come and gone?'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) answered him, In this matter, Allah has informed the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), that all people will not be united into one religious community, but would rather stay divided into different religions and sects; injustice and tyranny between them would never be absent, and they would continue to differ amongst each other and commit injustice against each other until the very Day of Judgment (Qiyamat).
The Judge challenged him to read out the verse from the Qur'an that proves this point.
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) recited, 'Allah has spoken in the Qur'an that "If your Lord had willed, He would make all people into one single community, yet they remain differing amongst themselves and quarreling, except those upon whom your Lord has shown mercy. For this Allah has created them and the word of your Lord was made complete, that surely I will fill up Hell with Jinn and Humans all together" (Qur'an, Surat Hud, 11:118-119). And Allah has also spoken in another verse "We have cast among them enmity and anger until the Day of Judgement" (Qur'an, Surat al-Ma'idah, 5:67). Commentators have written on this verse (in the Tafsir al-Madarik) that all people will remain divided and in disagreement and the commitment of their hearts will never be in accord; they will never achieve mutual understanding or cooperation. Those who have been infidels will remain in their own stubborn opinions until the Hour of Judgement overtakes them all of a sudden or until they are given their due punishment. The Prophet (PBUH) is reported to have said, "One group from my community will remain fighting with the others to uphold the truth, and will be clearly evident until the Day of Judgement.
So it is clear from these verses of the Speech of Allah and from these reports of the sayings of the Prophet (PBUH) that the whole world will never become Muslim. Rather, the people of the world will remain in difference and conflict until the very Day of Judgement. From the first creation of Adam (AHS) until today, the pattern of behaviour ordained by Allah with regard to human beings is unchanging in all our circumstances: Allah has said "How little it is they believe!" (Qur'an, Surat al-Baqarah, 2:88) and "No, most of them have gone astray [fasiquna]" (Qur'an, Surat Al Imran 3:110). But despite this, Allah has declared in honour of the Prophet (PBUH) that "We have sent you only that you might be a mercy to both worlds" (Qur'an Surat al-Anbiya', 21:107). Despite the strong speech of the most noble of the Prophets, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), who is the clearest proof of all the pure ones, still the world has not accepted to become Muslim in his own time. How, then, could you imagine that all the people of the world would become Muslims in the days of the Mahdi (AHS) of the end of time? Our Prophet (PBUH) has said in relation to his community that "My community will split up into seventy-three different sects and all of them are in the fire except for one". This means that all the diverse groups from among the Muslim community will enter the fires of hell, except for one that will enter directly to paradise. Since the Prophet (PBUH) himself has clearly stated that even his community will never be unified and will stay split into all these quarreling groups, how can you claim that in the time of the Mahdi (AHS), all the world will become Muslims? Be just and reasonable, for the Prophet (PBUH) has said that Allah is merciful on whoever deals justily with others!'
The Judge then asked him, 'The Mahdi (AHS) and Jesus ['Issa] will appear in the world during the same time and that one would obey the other and follow his lead in prayer. But up until this very day, Jesus (AHS) has not appeared and has not acknowledged the Mahdi (AHS), so how can you people still insist that the Mahdi (AHS) has already come and gone? With what proof do you make this claim?'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) answered him, 'We believe this according to the sayings reported from our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). and also by the research of Mulla Taftazani; we claim what is established as true that the Mahdi (AHS) and Jesus (AHS) will not come at the same time.'
The Judge challenged him, 'Recite those sayings of the Prophet (PBUH) and the claims of the Mulla that prove your point'.
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) obliged him, saying, 'The Prophet (PBUH) is reported to have said, "How could my community ever come to ruin, with me coming at its beginning, Jesus (AHS) coming at its ending, and the Mahdi (AHS) from among my descendents appearing in its middle. The Prophet (PBUH) has also warned against the appearance of two leaders of the community [khalifah] at the same time, saying "If the people swear allegiance to two leaders at the same time, then kill the one who has appeared second".
The Judge questioned him, 'In which book have you found this saying of the Prophet (PBUH)?'
'It is found in the text Mishkat' (Miskhat al-Masabih) answered Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH). The Judge then began to search around in that book, looking for the quoted sayings. Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) himself extracted both of them from the book and read them aloud.
Then the Judge asked, 'And whose saying did you mention besides these reports of the Prophet (PBUH)?'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) recited the passage [from Mulla Taftazani]: 'As for what people say abut the Mahdi (AHS) following in obedience Jesus (AHS), or Jesus (AHS) following in obedience the Mahdi (AHS), this is a matter on which there is no reliable proof either way. So nobody should pronounce the truth to be one way and not the other''
'This passage is found in what book?' the Judge interrogated him, 'and who is the author?'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) replied, It is quoted from Sharah al-Maqacid, and the author is Shaykh Sa'd al-Din al-Taftazani.'
Then the Judge changed the topic and asked, 'The Mahdi (AHS) is clearly predicted to be born in Madinah, while this man whom you claim to be the Mahdi (AHS) was born in Hindustan (Al-Hind). So by what logic can you claim that he is proved to be the Mahdi (AHS) of the end of time?'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) answered him, 'It is clear that the word madinah in the language of the Arabs is used in a general sense to mean any city; to use it in a limited sense is not permissible. Just refer to the verse in the Qur'an when Allah says, "A man came running from the furthest part of the madinah." (Qur'an, Surat Ya-Sin, 36:20)
'To what madinah is that in reference?' the Judge asked, 'and what was the name of that man, and who was the Prophet active during his time?'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) answered, 'The madinah referred to is the city of Antioch [Antokiya] at the time of the Prophet Jesus. The name of that man who came running was Habib Najjar. Therefore it is clear according to this Qur'anic verse that the term madinah in Arabic has a general meaning in reference to any city [and not just to our Prophet's city of Madinah in the Hijaz].'
The Judge again objected, The city of Jaunpur is located in Hind, while the Mahdi (AHS) of the end of time is clearly stated to be born of the Arabs!'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) answered, A saying of the Prophet (PBUH) has been relayed, indicating that the Mahdi (AHS) will be born in Hind.
The Judge challenged him, 'Recite that saying!'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) recited this saying reported from the Prophet (PBUH), "The Mahdi (AHS) will appear from the descendents of Hussain (RA), the son of Ali (may Allah uphold his dignity), and his birthplace will be Kabul or Hind; then the Mahdi (AHS) will travel to Makkah and stay for some time in Makkah" until the end of the report.
The Judge asked, 'What claims did [the man you claim as the Mahdi (AHS)] make there in Makkah, and who accepted them?'
'The promised Mahdi (AHS) went to the Ka'ba, to the house of Allah, 'answered Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), 'and there he mounted the pulpit and clearly pronounced his claim to be the Mahdi (AHS). And he recited this saying of the Prophet (PBUH): "Those who follow me are the believers [mu'min]". After this pronouncement, the first man to pledge allegiance to him was Shah Nizam (RA), the king of Ja'is, saying "I have believed and placed my trust in you. After that, Qazi Ala'ul-Din Bidari (RA) pledged allegiance to the Mahdi (AHS), by saying the same thing.
The Judge objected, 'The pledges of just two people do not confirm his claim to be the Mahdi (AHS)'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) responded, 'The followers of the Mahdi (AHS) were very numerous, and each of them took the same pledge of allegiance as these two did. Besides, in the ritual law laid down by our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), if two trustworthy witnesses confirm the claim of a man, then his claim is considered established and valid. I mentioned the pledge of these two men because they were both very highly esteemed and respected leaders. One was the king of city of Ja'is, while the other was the Chief Judge of the city of Bidar. In the view of the law, the testimony of these two witnesses confirms an established proof By their testimony the claim of [Sayyid Muhammad (PBUH)] to be the Mahdi (AHS) has been clearly and firmly established.'
The Judge said, 'The saying of the Prophet (PBUH) that you have recited, in what book is it recorded?'
In the book of Prophetic (PBUH) traditions called 'Iqd-al-Durar,' answered Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH). (Iqd-al-Durar fi Akhbar al-Mahdi) Likewise, there is a saying by Ali (my Allah be content with him) from a letter that he wrote. It has been quoted by Shaykh Muhayy al-Din lbn 'Arabi in his text called al-Futuhat al-Makkiyyah in the form of this poem:
It is true that the Seal of the Saints bears witness.
The essence of the leader of the Knowers of God is unique.
He is the Mahdi (AHS), rightly guided and descended from Ahmad (PBUH)
His gaze is sharp as an Indian sword as he passes beyond sight
He Is the Sun that blazes away every fog and darkness
He is the seasonal downpour as it rains abundantly

You see, it is clear that both the sayings of the Prophet (PBUH) and the sayings of Ali claim that the Mahdi (AHS) will appear in Hind. We accept this very Mahdi (AHS) as the promised one, whose coming at a specified time is clearly established beyond doubt.
Then Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) turned to the Judge and asked. 'Do you have with you that book called Shu'ab al-Iman.'
'Why would you be asking after that book?' the Judge questioned him back.
'In that book,' Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) told him, 'there is the report of a decision from all among the scholars of the Sunni community in which they advise to hesitate and equivocate before specifying the time in which the Mahdi (AHS) will appear. They all agree that the conditions of the appearance of the Mahdi (AHS) of the end of time and the exact time of his appearance are frilly dependent on the will of Allah [who will make him appear whenever the Divine wills].
The Judge asked him, 'Which scholars have said this? Read out that passage.'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) recited the following passage. 'Indeed, people have vast disagreements on the topic of the Mahdi (AHS). A whole group of scholars have advised caution on this topic, and have adopted the policy of ceding to each person what he thinks and knows. They have agreed in the belief that the Mahdi (AHS) is one of the descendents of Fatimah (RA), the daughter of the Prophet (PBUH), whom Allah will create at whatever time he wills and whom Allah will send on a mission to secure victory for his religion.'
'Who exactly has stated this?' asked the Judge.
'This is a statement', replied Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), 'of the scholars of the community of Ahl-iSunnat wa.Jama'at,that lmam Baihaqi has quoted in his text called Shu'ab a/-Iman.'
Finally, the Judge said, 'I do not have this book in my library.'
'Then request it from the library of the Emperor,' insisted Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), 'and we will see if this passage is quoted in that book--we will see if I am telling the truth. If I am not, then I become like those cesured in the saying of the Prophet (PBUH), that "The liar does not belong to my community.'
The Judge knew within that Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) was telling the truth. He connived to change the subject, saying 'No, it is already evening [we cannot get that book]. Tell me, in the sayings of the Prophet (PBUH) there is mention of a fortress by the water's edge called Constantinople [Qunstantaniyyah] which the Mahdi (AHS) will conquer after pronouncing Allahu Akhar. The Mahdi (AHS) you claim to follow never conquered any fortress like this.'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) replied, The Mahdi (AHS) we follow did not conquer any such fortress, because there is a great disagreement about this saying of the Prophet (PBUH).
'What disagreement can there be'?' asked the Judge.
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) said, 'Some scholars hold that the conquest of this fortress by pronouncing Allahu Akbar is the work of some one from the Jewish tribes [Banu Isra'il]. whereas the Mahdi (AHS) is necessarily someone from the Arab tribes [Banu Isma'iI].
In the middle of this discussion, one of the scholars present interjected that, The Mahdi (AHS) is of the descendents of Hussain (RA), so what he's saying about the Arab tribes is correct!'
The Judge contradicted him, 'I have seen it written in one book that the Mahdi (AHS) will be from the descendents of 'Abbas'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) said, The scholars from the whole Sunni community have come to the consensus that the Mahdi (AHS) will be from the descendents of Hussain (RA).'
'First of all, 'said the Judge, let us find out the truth about the Mahdi (AHS) you claim to follow, and only after that will we finish this other discussion.'
'By means of these conflicting views and contradictory opinions,' said Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), 'one of our greatest leaders became a follower of the Mahdi (AHS). He was Shaykh Ala'i (may Allah be merciful to him) who was the spiritual guide of Sher Shah Suri and the Emperor Salim Shah. He did extensive research from the most prestigious books of respected early scholars of the Sunni community, and found that the appearance of our Mahdi (AHS) was in perfect accord with the verses of the Qur'an, reports of the Prophet's (PBUH) words, and the statements upon which all the Sunni scholars have agreed. Only then did he bear witness to the truth of the claim of our Mahdi (PBUH). We Mahdawis all fully believe that the ethics, values and action of Sayyid Muhammad (PBUH) Jaunpuri follow exactly in every detail the ethics, values and actions of Muhammad (PBUH), the seal of the Prophets (PBUH) and Messengers (PBUH). As they say in Arabic, exactly. measure for measure, and step for step. Those who sincerely believe in the mission the Prophets (AHS) and the sanctity of the saints are in total agreement that any person who shares in the ethical character of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is trustworthy in his claims. Such as ethical person could never spread lies and falsifications or impute to Allah something that Allah has not decreed to him. This is just like a general principle that the jurists have laid down in establishing the truthfulness of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) himself. They have written that "Everything which is established by the words of a trustworthy person is therefore completely trustworthy".
'Therefore, if any person is just and is a sincere seeker after the truth, then he must necessarily research into the noble character of this Mahdi (AHS) in order to compare him to the nobility of the Prophet (PBUH); then he can see for himselves whether they are of one constitution. Just see how the author, Imam Muhammad Nasfi, has mentioned both of these two Muhammads (PBUH), the Prophet (PBUH) and the Mahdi (AHS), with equal mention in his commentary on the verse "Who have not already joined with them" (Qur'an, Surat aI-Jumu'ah, 62:3) in his book Kashf al-Haqa'iq. He writes that "The Mahdi's (AHS) essence is like the Prophet's essence, his knowledge is like the Prophet's (PBUH) knowledge, his followers are like the Prophet's (PBUH) followers, his patience is like the Prophet's (PBUH) patience, his reliance on Allah is like the Prophet's (PBUH) reliance on Allah. In every state he is the Prophet's (PBUH) equal, inwardly and outwardly". This shows that the essence of the Mahdi (AHS) of the end of time follows the inner character and outer conduct of the Prophet (PBUH) in each detail. Look also with what praiseworthy qualities and lofty eithics Shaykh Ibn 'Arabi has described the Mahdi (AHS) of the end of time in his book al-Futuhat al-Makkiyyah, when explaining the details of the special sanctity [wilayat] of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). You must look at this passage, so that you may understand his real intent in writing it and reach the full realization of its importance, If Allah wills.'
Then Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) saw a book before the Judge and asked 'Which book is this?' The Judge answered, 'It's title is Mishkat. Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) said that this book also mentions the Mahdi (AHS) in this passage. "Ali (RA) once asked: Oh Prophet of Allah (PBUH), will the Mahdi (AHS) be from our family lineage, or from another family's lineage? The Prophet (PBUH) answered him: Truly the Mahdi (AHS) will come from our lineage, for Allah will close the Muslim community as Allah had opened it. This report has been transmitted by an entire group of reliable reporters in their books, including Abu al-Qasim al-Tabrani and Abu Nai'im al-Isfahani and Abd al-Rahman ibn Hatim and others.'
'I, too, have seen in this book that same quotation that you have recited,' admitted the Judge. Then he complained, 'You have memorized all these texts and reports about the Prophet (PBUH) that prove you points. But I have not have the chance to memorize the points [to refute you].'
'Well, look here,' said Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), 'I have memorized just those points which are necessary proofs in any debate. They are indispensable for me, since persuading the whole of humanity to believe in the Mahdi (AHS) is a duty incumbent upon me. The Mahdi's (AHS) essence requires and demands such belief, since his appearance has been promised by Allah. He is called the promised one since Allah has spread the word about his advent in Allah's very own scripture through the tongue of Allah's very own Prophet (PBUH). Sayyid Muhammad (PBUH) himself has said, "I am ordered by Allah to declare that I am the Mahdi (AHS), witnessed by the spirit of the Prophet (PBUH). He followed exactly the example of our Prophet (PBUH); he reached a spiritual level above the level of Ijtihad (thorough familiarity with the Prophet's (PBUH) external teachings). No other person can claim a share in the loftiness of this spiritual attainment. Scholars have proclaimed that a person of such rank must be believed and followed, for he shares all the personal qualities of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH): he claims to be the Mahdi (AHS) on the order of Allah and in accord with the scripture of Allah. he is protected for error by Allah like the Prophets and Messengers. his advent is promised by Allah, he is the Seal of the Sainthood (Khatim al-Wilayat il-Muqayyadah Muhammadi SAS) that flows from the archetype of Muhammad (PBUH), he is described by the Qur'an to be equivalent to the Qur'an in guidance and mercy, his reputation is spread by the Qur'an and its text confirms his status as leader of the community [imamat] and [khilafat], he is the indisputable evidence of Allah and the beloved of Allah as described by the Speech of Allah. His community of followers is also described in the Qur'an as those who will be obedient to him inwardly and outwardly. Such a person who is supported by so many clear and decisive proofs from the scripture, and who supports the scripture so clearly, his very person by his very nature demands to be believed and followed by all people, by all created beings. Whoever can understand will understand. Arid what is the denunciation of such a person who rejects his rightful claim if not outright infidelity against Allah and the Prophet [Kufr]? People who believe in him know that his essence and his person require such belief, therefore they pledge allegiance to his mission and confirm his status. After this, they gather together the verses of Quran, the reports of the Prophet (PBUH), the decisions of the pious scholars who belong to the Sunni community, and insist that they confirm the advent of the Mahdi (AHS) of the end of time, who is none other than Sayyid Muhammad (PBUH), the promised Mahdi (AHS). They do this just as the scholars of old had gathered together the proofs of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and declared that beyond a doubt his very person required belief and faith. They reposed their faith in him through these proofs, and declared that all people must believe in the advent of the Mahdi (AHS), that this belief is a ritual obligation [farz] integral to religion itself.
'The Prophet (PBUH) has said about the scholars, that "the scholars of my community are [as honored as] the prophets of the Jewish tribes, "Yet despite all these signs and confirmations of the advent of the Mahdi (AHS), scholars harbored many differences of opinion and conflicts of view about the Mahdi (AHS). Numerous reports of what the Prophet (PBUH) has said about the Mahdi (AHS) contradict each other. There is a basic guideline about controversial topics like this that leading scholars any mystics have advocated, "lf two [reports] contradict each other, let them both fall into disuse, "But you, oh Judge, want to make use to this difference opinion about asserting the leadership of the Mahdi [imamat] and declaring his rightful place of [khilafat], If anybody, through selfishness and pride, gets caught up in these disputes that are impossible to win and topics that are difficult to understand, then they can never possibly reach the goal [of understanding Allah and following the Prophet (PBUH)]. There is a verse of Qur'an which makes this very clear: "Then Allah guided those who truly believed to the truth in whatever they may have disagreed upon, for Allah guides those whom Allah desired to guide to a path straight and clear."25 In the commentary on this verse in Tafsir-i Rahmani, it is written that Allah guides those who believe in the truth directly "without any proof from textual sources and without any human teacher". When such guidance comes down from Allah. what is the use of this dispute between you and me? What is the use of these arguments and counter-arguments? What refutations and retaliations can there by? Wouldn't it be better if we just enact the commandments of Allah [as best we know how]?'
The Judge asked him, 'And how does Allah command us to act?'
Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH) recited this verse from the Qur'an "Whoever performs a good deed gets the reward for it, and whoever acts evilly will get the punishment for it, for Allah does not act tyrannically with humankind". Then he recited another verse to compliment the first, "Every soul will be held accountable only for what it has done, no delegates can bear the responsibility in their place. Your Lord is the place to which you each return, then Allah will inform you about what you had conflicted and edisputed" (Qur'an, Surat al-An'am, 6:164). Then he recited another, "That community which has passed, they will reap the results of what they have done while you will reap the results of what you are doing. You will not be questioned about what they have done, nor can you benefit by it" (Qur'an, Surat al-Baqarah, 2:134 and 141), And he followed this with another verse, "I have been ordered to deal between you with fairness and justice. Allah is our Lord and Allah is also your Lord. We will be judged by our acts and you will be judged by yours. There is no contention and quarrel between us. Allah will gather us together again, and Allah is the inevitable end for each of us"(Qur'an, Surat al-Shurah, 42:15).
'You see, 'said Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), 'that Allah commands us to act justly and to do good in every moment, in every situation. It is clear that Allah will not ask you about me on Judgement day, and Allah will not ask me about you. Allah plainly gives each one reward for what they do which is good and beneficial, and punishment for what they do which is bad and harmful. You must know that on the Day of Judgement, Allah has no need to ask any question of anyone!'
The Judge protested, But it is my job to test and examine everyone.
'But Judge,' interjected Shaykh A'zam (RAH), the son of Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), 'there are so many different religious communities and sects who fight side by side in the army of the Emperor! I mean, besides the seventy-three different sub-communities of Muslims, there are Jews, Christians and Parsis [Magian], and even pagans! Which of all these religious communities are you examining and interrogating? Those who are outside the pale of Islam say things that are clearly outside the pale, while those who are trustworthy and true believers say things that are clearly true in accord with the Qur'an. What profit do you hope to make by interrogating every one and examining the beliefs of each? One thing is for certain, that whatever a father does, he will bear the consequences, and what his son does, that son alone will bear the consequences'.
The Judge corrected him, 'Whatever good a father does, the reward for it will not accure to his son, but whatever good a son does will also reward his father.
'I understand what you mean', said Shaykh Ibrahim (RAH), 'but look here. Is it true that if a father does not pray, does not keep the fast, drinks alcohol and chases after other women, his son will be punished? Or if a son should do evil things, is it so that his father will be punished as well?'
'No', insisted the Judge, he will not be liable to punishment.'
Shaykh A'zam (RAH) replied. 'Then just as you say he will not be punished by means of another person's evil actions, by the same logic his good actions cannot benefit another person either. Both of these suppositions go against the explicit teaching of the Divine words.'
'Recite the verse that proves your point,' ordered the Judge.
Shaykh A'zam (RAH) recited this verse, "Oh you people, stay constantly aware of your Lord and feel dread for the Day on which a father will not be rewarded at all for what his son has done nor will children be rewarded for what their parents have done. Whatever Allah promises is irrevocably true, so do not let this worldly life mislead you and do not let the proud deceiver trick you regarding Allah" (Qur'an, Surat Luqman, 31:33).
The Judge finally pronounced, 'You people really do act on the commandments of Allah and the Prophet (PBUH) in accord with the legal norms set down by Muhammad (PBUH)! I judge that your doctrine is correct and acceptable.
'Well, Judge,' said Shaykh A'zam (RAH), 'of course we have a sound and reliable doctrine, since we believe in the oneness of Allah and the Divine mission of the Prophet (PBUH), and act out the commands of Allah and the Prophet (PBUH) in accordance with the limits of the religious law set down by Muhammad (PBUH). Just as Allah has told in the Qur'an, Obey Allah and the Messenger (PBUH), for if you turn astray again, know that Allah does not love those who are unfaithful."
When the Judge heard this verse, he became very happy, and gave the official order that the interrogation was done; they could go back to place where they had been staying. Then the Judge himself went to the Emperor and told him all about the discussion and debate that had passed between them.
The Emperor asked him, 'Have you now become fully informed about the beliefs of these followers of the Mahdi (AHS), and have you closely examined all their doctrines?'
The Judge replied, 'They bear witness to the oneness of Allah who sent the Prophet (PBUH) on a mission. They cherish the memory of all four of the Prophet's (PBUH) close companions, and believe that all four legal methods are validly based on the truth. They are certainly members of our Sunni community. They say that the Mahdi (AHS) of the end of tirne (akhir az-Zaman) is their leader (Imam (AHS)) who has come and gone.'
The Emperor asked 'So did you find that they transgress the limits of the religious law in any aspect that makes them liable to punishment?'
'No', answered the Judge, they are not liable to any Qur'anic punishment, nor to summary execution, nor to imprisonment or exile. I have found no cause for punishing them in any way.
'I have known well', admitted the Emperor, 'that they follow the law (shariah) scrupulously and know the dictates of our religion and enact them, and dispute with others through the proofs of the Qur'an, the words of the Prophet (PBUH), and the teachings of the pious scholars. Their practices are not against the religious law at all, and they only act on that which is in accord with the Qur'an and the example of the Prophet (PBUH). Their doctrines are surely within the bounds of the Sunni community. That they declare the slogan that "the Mahdi (AHS) had already come and gone" does not make them liable to any punishment under the religious law. So you can give the order to let them go freely.'
When the Judge returned to his courtroom, he summoned us all from the tomb-complex of Shah Sharif Majdhub (RAH) to come back to speak with him. He told us about his meeting with the Emperor and what he had commanded. He said, I have gone before the Emperor and explained everything to him and secured for you the permission to live freely in this region. You are now free to go back to your own residences.' All these people took their leave from the Judge, Abu Sa'id, and left the tomb of Shah Sharif (RAH), departing for their homes in Chichaund.